Explanation of Capacitor

Capacitor is an electronic component that implements to store electrical charge or electrical energy in electronic circuit. Capacitor was categorized in pasif component because doesn’t need current for doing the function.The value of capacitor is called the capacitance, the capacitance is expressed in unit of farad (F). The value of capacitance in generally is very small, so it is often expressed in the form of microfarad (10-6F), nanofarad (10-9F), and picofarad (10-12F ).




Capacitor consists of two conductors (metal plates) that are parallel to each other, and between the two metals is present insulating material (dielectric material). Dielectric materials can affect the value of capacitor, and the dielectric materials in capacitor can made from ceramics, paper, air, and metal films.

In general capacitor has many function in electronic circuit, such as capacitor has functions as a filter in power supply circuit, passing alternating current (AC), blocking direct current (DC), and can be used as a frequency generator in the oscillator circuit.

v  Types of capacitor
In general capacitor can be classified into many types, then if we classify of capacitor based on the value of capacitance, the capacitor can be divided into 2 types :
1.      Fixed Capacitor




Fixed capacitor has constant value of capacitance. Fixed capacitor has function to store electrical charge, Fix capacitor also has functions as a filter in power supply circuit, passing alternating current (AC), blocking direct current (DC), and can be used as a frequency generator in the oscillator circuit.

2.      Variable Capacitor


Variable capacitor has value of capacitance can be change. Variable capacitor can be used as tuning in the radio. There are two kinds of variable capacitor, namely Varco (variable capacitor) and Trimmer. Variable capacitor made of metal with a larger size. In general variable capacitor used to select the radio frequency waves.

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Then if we classify types of capacitors based on the polarity poles, the capacitor can be divided into 2 types :
1.      Polar Capacitor



Polar capacitor is capacitor which have positive and negative polarity poles. Polar capacitor usually made from dielectric materials such as electrolyte capacitor. This capacitor has the value of capacitance is greater than the other capacitor types. Polar capacitor can found in electrolyte capacitor (Elco) and Tantalum capacitor.

2.      Non Polar Capacitor


Non Polar capacitor is capacitor doesn’t has polarity poles, that mean the installation of capacitors in electronic circuits can be used in reverse. This capacitor has a capacitance value is small. Non polar capacitor can found in Ceramic capacitor, Polyester capacitor, Paper capacitor, and Mica capacitor.

Then if we classify types of capacitors based on the material used, the capacitor can be divided into 5types :
1.      Ceramic Capacitor






Ceramic capacitor is made from ceramic materials. This capacitor has a thin round shaped or rectangular. Ceramic capacitor doesn’t haspolarity poles, so it can be installed in reverse polarity. Ceramic capacitor values ranging from 1pF to 0.01μF.

2.      Polyester Capacitor

Polyester capacitor is made from polyester. These capacitors have a rectangular shape. In electronic circuit, polyester capacitors can be installed in reverse polarity because doesn’t has polarity poles.

3.      Paper Capacitor



Paper capacitor is capacitor dielectric materials made from paper. In general paper capacitor values ranging between 300pF to 4μF. Paper capacitors doesn’t has polarity poles,so it can be reverse installed in electronics circuit.
4.      Mica Capacitor
Mica capacitor is capacitor dielectric materials made from mica. Mica capacitor values generally range between 50pF to 0.02μF. Mica capacitors doesn’t has polarity poles,so it can be reverse installed in electronics circuit.

5.      Electrolyte Capacitor
Electrolyte capacitor is a capacitor made of dielectric materials from electrolyte. This capacitor has shaped cylindrical. Electrolyte capacitors or usually called “Elco” is often used in electronics circuit that requires high capacitance. The electrolyte capacitors which have positive pole (+) and negative pole (-). In general, the value of electrolyte capacitors ranges from 0.1μF to thousands microfarad (μF). Usually in the body electrolyte capacitors will be shown the value capacitance, voltage, and negative terminal.
6.      Tantalum Capacitor
Tantalum capacitor is capacitor dielectric materials made of tantalum metal. This capacitor which have positive pole (+) and negative pole (-) as the electrolyte capacitor. Tantalum capacitors can operate at higher temperatures than other capacitor types, and also has a large capacitance but packaged in a smaller size.

v  Reading the value of capacitor
The value of capacitance can known by the text code on the body of capacitor. On electrolyte capacitor we can know the value by read the text code. Usually in the body electrolyte capacitors will be shown the value capacitance, voltage, and negative terminal. For example, the electrolyte capacitor has text code 470μF and 25 volts.So the value of capacitance is 470μF with maximum voltage that can be passed is 25volts.
Then on tantalum capacitor, mica capacitor, paper capacitor, and ceramic capacitor we can know the value by convert the text code on capacitor body. For example,the capacitor specified code is 222. Then the value of the capacitor can be determined: the first number as the first digit, the second number as the second digit, and the third number as a multiplier in units of picofarads (pF).
So the value of capacitance is 22x102pF = 2200 pF= 2,2nF

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v  Characteristic of capacitor
Series and parallel capacitors circuit
a.       Series capacitors circuit
When capacitorsare installed in series circuit, it was found that the current through the capacitor will be same, while the voltage passing through it differently. Installation of capacitors in series performed to obtain a capacitance value that is smaller than the original value of the capacitor.
example :
The capacitors are installed in series circuit, and the value of capacitors are :
C1 = 4 μF, C2 = 6 μF, C3 = 8 μF.
So, the value of capacitance : Cs =   =  0,54
b.      Parallel capacitors circuit
When capacitors are installed in parallel circuit, it was found that the current through the capacitor has a different value, while the voltage on each capacitor will be the same. Installation of capacitors in parallel performed to obtain a capacitance value that is greater than the value of the original capacitor.
example :
The capacitors are installed in parallel circuit, and the value of capacitors are :
C1 = 4 μF, C2 = 6 μF, C3 = 8 μF.
So, the value of capacitance :Cp =   =  18

v  The application of capacitor
Capacitor has function to store electrical charge or electrical energy, capacitor also has functions as a filter in power supply circuit, passing alternating current (AC), blocking direct current (DC), and can be used as a frequency generator in the oscillator circuit.
Power supply is an electronic circuit that serves to convert alternating current into direct current. Power supply has four main parts in order to produce a stable DC current. The fourth part of them is Transformers, Rectifiers, Filters and Voltage Regulator.In the power supply circuit, the filter is used to smooth out the current signal from the rectifier or in other words filter serves to flatten the DC voltage ripple. Filter capacitors used in power supply circuit normally the type of electrolyte capacitors and ceramic capacitors.


9 Responses to "Explanation of Capacitor"

  1. nice article,how about to make new one? hehe

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    Replies
    1. Thank you, okay then I will post another article

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  2. ini untuk anak teknik elektro ya, mantap djiwa

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  3. The least complex sort of capacitor has two equal conductive plates isolated by a decent protecting material called the dielectric. high voltage ceramic capacitor

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  5. Thanks for the great content. Please leave a content about the datasheet of this capacitor model:قیمت خازن سرامیکی

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